Stopping Power of Particle Radiation
After the H-bomb was made, reporters started to call Teller the father of the H-bomb. For the sake of history, I think it is more precise to say that Ulam is the father, because he provided the seed, and Teller is the mother, because he remained with the child. As for me, I guess I am the midwife.
This is essentially a graphical version of the
Range-Energy Calculator. Charged Particle Passage through Matter
This program provides stopping power and kinetic energy as a function of depth for a specified projectile-target combination.
Current data point:
gfortran -g -std=f2008 -Wall -Wextra -O2
dEdx.f08 • Target.dat
The values of the mean excitation energies used in the stopping power formulae are the same as those adopted in ICRU Report 37 (1984). They are based on the analysis of measured stopping powers, and on information extracted from empirical oscillator strengths and dielectric response functions. For compounds, the mean excitation energies take into account—by a crude approximation—differences between the gaseous and condensed phase, and the effects of chemical binding.
The shell corrections for most elements are based on semi-empirical formulae developed by Bichsel [H. Bichsel,
Stopping Power of Fast Charged Particles in Heavy Elements, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Report NIST IR-4550 (1991)] and described in ICRU Report 37. For elements with atomic numbers $Z$ > 63, and for $Z$ = 47, revised shell corrections from Bichsel are used. The Bloch correction is evaluated from the formula given by Bloch [F. Bloch, "Zur Bremsung rasch bewegter Teilchen beim Durchgang durch die Materie," Ann. Phys. 16, 285 (1933)]. The Barkas correction is calculated according to the method of Ashley, Ritchie, and Brandt [J.C. Ashley, R.H. Ritchie, and W. Brandt, "$Z^3_1$ Effect in the Stopping Power of Matter for Charged Particles," ; J.C. Ashley, R.H. Ritchie, and W. Brandt, "$Z^3_1$-Dependent Stopping Power and Range Contributions," Phys. Rev. B 5, 2393 (1972) ], with parameter values recommended by Bichsel and ICRU Report 37. For elements with atomic numbers $Z$ ≥ 64, and for $Z$ = 47, empirical formulae of Bichsel [H. Bichsel, "Barkas effect and effective charge in the theory of stopping power," Phys. Rev. A 8, 2402 (1973) ] are used for the Barkas correction. Phys. Rev. A 41, 3642 (1990)